Vitamins/Micronutrient – How much need to your body

Vitamins are essential nutrients for regulating various functions of the body. Vitamins need for the formation of tissues, blood cells, genetic material, hormones and chemicals for the nervous system. They are essential for the body, growth, health, physical and emotional balance. It should note that the human body can naturally produce only two types of vitamin D and vitamin K.

Others should take with food or supplements. We need to keep in mind that not all foods contain vitamins, so it is important to combine different food groups to be well nourished.

There are two types of vitamins, those are water soluble vitamins and Fat soluble vitamins.

The Water-soluble vitamins:  

These vitamins dissolve in water and can be obtained from fruits, vegetables, milk and meat products. Within this group we find:

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid):


Vitamin C requires for collagen synthesis and plays an important role in the healing process. This vitamin absorbs iron and acts as an antioxidant. It is important to note that our body does not produce vitamin C alone and it does not accumulate, so we should give it daily.

Good food sources:

Vitamin C should include in our diet containing oranges, kiwis, grapes, strawberries, tomatoes, broccoli and spinach.

Average consumption per day: 60-70mg

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Benefits: Vitamin B1 is essential for brain, nerves, heart and muscle function. This vitamin interferes with energy metabolism and converts fats, carbohydrates and proteins into energy.

Good food sources:

Vitamin B1 is found in whole grains such as lentils, green beans, some types of rice, and whole wheat bread. But you can find it in meat, spinach, oranges, cantaloupe, milk and eggs.

Average consumption of per day: 1.5-2mg.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)


Vitamin B2 supports the body’s antioxidant activity and it is important to maintain the longevity of our mucous membranes and tissues such as skin, nails or hair. Also, vitamin B2 is important for the proper maintenance of the nervous system and immune system.

Good Food Sources:

Vitamin B2 rich foods include cheese, coconut, mushrooms, eggs, lentils, whole grains, milk, meat, almonds.

Average consumption per day: 1.8mg.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)


Vitamin B3 participates in energy metabolism. Its basic function is to convert food into energy. It is important to know that these vitamins absorb in the intestines and stomach.

Good Food Sources:

Vitamin B3 good sources are chicken, tuna, salmon, beef and legumes.

Average consumption per day: 15mg.

Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)


The main function of vitamin B5 is to convert food into energy. These vitamins play an important role in the various chemical reactions that take place in the body and need to maintain the proper functioning of the human body.

Good food sources:

Although many foods contain small amounts of pantothenic acid, they are abundant in grains and eggs. Avocados, yogurt, milk, chicken, sweet potatoes, and mushrooms are other sources.

Average consumption per day: 50mg.

Vitamin B6(Pyridoxine)


Vitamin B6 use for making coenzymes and facilitates the metabolism of proteins of the body. It supports an enzyme involved in the transport of oxygen and an essential enzyme in the brain to create several neurotransmitters. It determines the regulation of the nervous system.

Good food sources:

Vitamin B6 good sources are chicken, nuts, legumes, potatoes, bananas and avocados.

Average consumption per day: 2.1mg.

Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)


Vitamin B12 helps to keep neurons and blood cells healthy. In addition, it contributes to the expansion of DNA, the genetic material of all cells. Moreover, it prevents specific anemia.

Good food sources:

Available only in animal products such as meat, poultry, fish, milk and eggs.

Average intake per day: 0.0005mg.

Lipid soluble Vitamins:

These vitamins are soluble in oils and fats. And also found in the liposoluble portions of food. These vitamins do not need to consume much often since storing in body cells and. If you consume more fat-soluble vitamins it may be toxic.

Vitamin A (Retinol)


Vitamin A protects tissue health and good vision. It helps in the growth and well-being of the skin and mucous membranes as well as the skeletal tissues. Vitamin A includes antioxidant properties, which means that it protects cells from daily toxic damage from oxidation.

Vitamin A included foods:

There are many foods that contain vitamin A, including all dark green vegetables and oranges, green or yellow fruits such as carrots, spinach, parsley, pumpkin, and apricot kernels, as well as tuna, cheese, and apricots.

 Average consumption per day: 0.8-1mg.

Vitamin D (Calciferol)


The main function of vitamin D is facilitating the metabolism of calcium and phosphate in the human body. So, this requiring for the healthy growth of bones and teeth.

Good food sources:

Vitamin D sources are mackerel, salmon, sardines and milk.

 Average consumption per day: 0.01mg.

Vitamin E (a-tocopherol)


Vitamin E, also known as adolescent vitamin and it is antioxidant involved in protecting lipids, so it has a protective effect on cell membranes.

Good food sources:

We can get vitamin E from foods like vegetable oil, liver, nuts, coconut, soy, avocado, blackberry, fish and whole grains.

Average consumption per day: 0.08mg.

Vitamin K (fit menadione)


Vitamin K is producing by intestinal flora. It is a compound for the synthesis of many clotting factors and our body needs to store carbohydrates.

Good food sources:

Vitamin K can get from the following foods: Alfalfa, Fish liver, Pumpkin, Egg yolk, Soybean oil

Average consumption per day: 0.1mg.

Micronutrient/Vitamins Deficiencies and Toxicities

Your body needs specific amounts of micronutrients to perform its unique functions. Taking too much or too little of vitamins or minerals can lead to negative side effects.

Deficiencies of Vitamins

Shortcomings Many healthy adults can get enough micronutrients from a balanced diet, but there are common nutrient deficiencies that affect some populations.


Vitamin D:

Approximately 77% of Americans suffer from vitamin D deficiency due to lack of sun exposure.

Vitamin B12:

Deficiency of animal foods can lead to vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarians and vegetarians. Older people are also at risk as absorption decreases with age.

Vitamin A:

Vitamin A often inadequate in the diets of women and children in developing countries.


This mineral commonly found in preschool children, menopausal women and vegetarians.


Nearly 22% and 10% of men and women over 50 do not get enough calcium, respectively. The signs, symptoms, and long-term effects of these deficiencies depend on each nutrient but can be detrimental to your body’s proper functioning and optimal health.

Toxicities of excess Vitamins

Micronutrient poisoning is less than deficient. Because these nutrients can store in your liver and adipose tissue, they can often occur in large doses of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Such as, water soluble vitamins, they cannot be eliminated from your body. Micronutrient poisoning usually develops in excess – rarely from food sources.

Signs and symptoms of poisoning vary according to the nutrient. It is important to note that excessive consumption of certain nutrients can be dangerous. In one study, more than 18,000 people were diagnosed with a higher risk of lung cancer due to past smoking or asbestos exposure.

The intervention group received 30 mg of vitamin A-beta-carotene per day and 25,000 retinyl palmitate. The trial was adjourned when the intervention group showed a 28% increase in lung cancer patients and a 17% increase in death over 11 years compared to the control group.

Micronutrient/Vitamins Supplements

Food sources seem to be the safest and most effective way to get enough vitamins and minerals. More researches need to fully understand the long-term effects of toxins and additives.

However, people with specific nutritional enzymes may benefit from supplementation under the supervision of a physician. If you want to get micronutrient supplements, look for third party certified products.

Be sure to avoid products that contain a “super” or “mega” dose of any nutrient, unless otherwise directed by a healthcare provider.

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